A vacuum truck or vacuum tanker is a type of tank truck that has a pump and a tank, designed to pneumatically suck liquids, sludges (such as fecal sludge), slurries or sand/water mixtures without the contact of any mechanical equipment. They are used to transport sanitary waste (human excreta mixed with water, e.g. from septic tanks) as well as for some industrial liquids or slurries. They can be equipped with a high pressure pump if they are used to clean out sewers from sand.

Vacuum trucks are used to transport the collected material to a treatment or disposal site, for example a sewage treatment plant.